Enjoy our article written for Kids on the Coast which was endorsed by Speech Pathology Australia – 🙂
Children learn to hear and process the difference between the speech sounds so they can tune their auditory discrimination skills.
It is difficult to determine a child’s level of hearing neurological maturity as the auditory brain is not expected to reach adult maturity until approximately the grade 4 level of schooling. Children can be assessed y an audiologist using a specialised hearing assessment called a central auditory processing assessment, however children tend not to be eligible for this assessment until they reach 6-7 years of age as they need to be capable of sitting the detailed test and have developed some literacy skills.
There is no doubt that a number of children who present with communication impairments have co-existing auditory challenges or auditory processing immaturity or disorder that is the actual cause of the speech condition forming. This is why it is so important to provide therapy for these skills as well to ensure that the auditory brain is learning the skills to process spoken information so that great speech and language can develop.
There are many skills that occur in the mind and integrate to process speech and language skills, however it is probably best to start at the most obvious skill next to auditory attention (the ability to focus and attend to speech) and auditory perception (how our auditory skills are perceiving this auditory information). This skill is auditory discrimination of speech sounds.
Once your child has learned who the phonic all stars are, what is their favourite speech sound and what is their hand signal, they are ready to learn to discriminate the sounds apart from each other. Some sounds are only different by a distinctive features such as the voice vibrating or not vibrating or the using the front or the back of the tongue and this can make it difficult for kids to hear the sounds apart. Especially look out for these sounds getting mixed up..
- contrasted by voice: p/b, t/d, k-c/g, s/z, f/v
- contrasted by front & back tongue: n/ng, t/k, d/g,
- contrasted by tongue-teeth placement: th/f, th/v
- contrasted by flow of air/stop of air: p/f, b/v, t/s, d/z
So how do we do the task…
Ask your child to …
Remember to keep your voice like a whisper sound.
Use the hand signal if they struggle to work out what the speech sound is. Then call out the name of the character… or give a hint …
“She is like a candle and doesn’t like to be blown out.”
If they continue to struggle, I point to 3-4 pictures and ask,
“which one is “puh”.
Once your child knows all the consonants then move on to the vowel sound card.
Once they know all the 46 sounds then move onto 2-3-4 sounds in a sequence. For instance
“Now find…puh (P) …duh (D). “
They must do it in the sequence you say and from left to right just like a word is formed. This is important to strengthen the children’s auditory memory and auditory sequencing skills.
The kids practice their skills at remembering the speech sounds and articulating them accurately by jumping on the Phonic All Star floor frieze. This is the same task that you can do when flipping your level 1 flashcards to practice all the 24 consonants and all the 22 vowel sounds.
We support the children to form the sounds correctly using the right placement of their lips, tongue, teeth and whether to turn their voice on or off. We also cue the sound using the Phonic All Star hand signal. Children practice all sounds until they are fast and automatic. The speed of this accuracy is one of our “winged keel” features as this enables the children to have this self knowledge about their phonological systems and how to make their own corrections in their speech.
The hand signal really helps children to retrieve the speech sound from their memory because they tend to lay in to their mind visual memories of the hand signal that are stronger than “auditory (heard) memories”. They also tend to learn memories in the movements in their body (kinaesthetic memories) that help them to program the auditory-phonological memories for the speech sound. They can also benefit from these hand signals being presented as a sequence to show them how a word needs to be said correctly.
We have to remember that some children with speech impairment have a listening impairment as being central to their challenges so they may not hear and/or process speech clearly as we do.
This is one of the “winged keel” features that support the children to learn and hold information that was very difficult to learn
Find It! is a game whereby small objects are inside a cylinder whereby the children have to turn the tube around to uncover the objects that are among lots of tiny distracting and colourful pebbles. These pebbles make them have to work hard with their visual processing skills to detect the objects but also to sometimes visually cloze the image when they only see a portion of the object. This means to see the other parts in their minds eye to then put the whole image together to recognise what it is. Once they find an object, they are expected to name the object, which involves the skills for word finding. Some objects are new words for the children and some may require correction for how they say the word using their sounds enabling them to re-format the sound sequence and store it correctly. The find it! tubes are in topics such as Beach-Farm Yard-Jungle-Glamor which enables explorations of lots of words deep inside a category whereby the task is therapy for the semantic web (see parent training).
The children need to find the correct sounds in the word to articulate this correctly and then they try and find the same object on their tablemats provided for them.
- Level 1 students are given pictures with words on their table mats whereby only some of the words are included making it a search to see the ones they need.
- Level 2 students, who have some reading capability, are given a list of the written words on a page and have to tick the words off when they find them.
The children work in teams of two whereby one child searches for the word and says the name of the word while the other then looks at the words on the poster. They swap after 2 minutes. The team with the most words found at the end of a few rounds is the winning team in the Club House Game!